As a warrior and a statesman, Red Cloud’s success in confrontations with the United States
government marked him as one of the most important Lakota leaders of the nineteenth century.
A representative Republic only works when everyone truly has a voice, and when the voices of the many or few aren’t drowned out by the pocketbooks of the rich and shameless.
Beginning in 1866, Red Cloud orchestrated the most successful war against the United States ever fought by an Indian nation. The army had begun to construct forts along theBozeman Trail
, which ran through the heart of Lakota territory in present-day Wyoming to the Montana gold fields from Colorado’s South Platte River
. As caravans of miners and settlers began to cross the Lakota’s land, Red Cloud was haunted by the vision of Minnesota’s expulsion of the Eastern Lakota in 1862 and 1863. So he launched a series of assaults on the forts, most notably the crushing defeat of Lieutenant Colonel William Fetterman’s column of eighty men just outside Fort Phil Kearny
, Wyoming, in December of 1866. The garrisons were kept in a state of exhausting fear of further attacks through the rest of the winter.
Red Cloud’s strategies were so successful that by 1868 the United States government had agreed to the Fort Laramie Treaty
. The treaty’s remarkable provisions mandated that the United States abandon its forts along the Bozeman Trail and guarantee the Lakota their possession of what is now the Western half of South Dakota, including the Black Hills, along with much of Montana and Wyoming.
Did Justice (sic) Roberts Sell His Soul To The Devil: The 16th. Amendment Constitutionally Prohibits The IRS Taxing Personal Income Because One Does Not Purchase A Government Insurance & Is Therefore Legally Avoidable!
Our Elections Are Under Assault from Big Money
WAITING FOR THE BUD LIGHT IN CORPORATE CHAMBERS OF GREED!The U.S. Supreme Court‘s 2010 decision in Citizens United vs. FEC opened the floodgates for corporate money.
In that decision, the Court ruled that corporations have the same rights as people, and that their unlimited corporate political spending equates to constitutionally protected free speech.On June 25, the U.S. Supreme Court issued its decision on the case challenging the Montana Corrupt Practices Act
. The Court refused to hear the case. Instead, the Court decided to summarily reverse the Montana Supreme Court
, throwing out our century-old ban on corporate money in elections
On his deathbed three years later 1909, Geronimo reportedly told his nephew he regretted surrendering to the U.S. “I should have fought until I was the last man alive,” he told him.It’s Time to Fight Back
We believe that the U.S. Supreme Court grossly missed the mark. Quite simply, corporations are not people
, they shouldn’t be granted the same rights as people, and they certainly shouldn’t be allowed to buy elections. And the recent U.S. Supreme Court decision on Montana’s Corrupt Practices Act
only means that the campaign FOR I-166 is more important than ever.It’s time for all Montanans to stand against corruption.
It is time to fan the flames of the prairie fire Montana started by standing up against the U.S. Supreme Court and its Citizens United
decision. It is time to stand with Montanans in support of I-166.Gov. Schweitzer and Lt. Gov. Bohlinger Call on You to Join the Fight:Initiative LanguageTHE COMPLETE TEXT OF INITIATIVE NO. 166 (I-166)
BE IT ENACTED BY THE PEOPLE OF THE STATE OF MONTANA
NEW SECTION. Section 1. Short title.
[Sections 1 through 4] may be cited as the “Prohibition on Corporate Contributions and Expenditures in Montana Elections Act.”
NEW SECTION. Section 2. Preamble.
The people of the state of Montana find that:(1) since 1912, through passage of the Corrupt Practices Act by initiative, Montana has prohibited corporate contributions to and expenditures on candidate elections;(2) in 1996, by passage of Initiative No. 125, Montana prohibited corporations from using corporate funds to make contributions to or expenditures on ballot issue campaigns;(3) Montana’s 1996 prohibition on corporate contributions to ballot issue campaigns was invalidated by Montana Chamber of Commerce v. Argenbright
, 226 F.3d 1049 (2000). Montana’s 1912 prohibition on corporate contributions to and expenditures on candidate elections is also being challenged under the holding of Citizens United v. FEC
, 558 U.S. _____, 130 S.Ct. 876 (2010). This decision equated the political speech rights of corporations with those of human beings.(4) in 2011 the Montana Supreme Court, in its decision, Western Tradition Partnership, Inc. v. Attorney General,
2011 MT 328, upheld Montana’s 1912 prohibition on corporate contributions to and expenditures on candidate campaigns, stating in its opinion as follows:(a) examples of well-financed corruption involving corporate money abound in Montana;(b) the corporate power that can be exerted with unlimited corporate political spending is still a vital interest to the people of Montana;(c) corporate independent spending on Montana ballot issues has far exceeded spending from other sources;(d) unlimited corporate money into candidate elections would irrevocably change the dynamic of local Montana political office races;(e) with the infusion of unlimited corporate money in support of or opposition to a targeted candidate, the average citizen candidate in Montana would be unable to compete against the corporate-sponsored candidate, and Montana citizens, who for over 100 years have made their modest election contributions meaningfully count, would be effectively shut out of the process; and(f) clearly the impact of unlimited corporate donations creates a dominating impact on the Montana political process and inevitably minimizes the impact of individual Montana citizens.
NEW SECTION. Section 3. Policy.
(1) It is policy of the state of Montana that each elected and appointed official in Montana, whether acting on a state or federal level, advance the philosophy that corporations are not human beings with constitutional rights and that each such elected and appointed official is charged to act to prohibit, whenever possible, corporations from making contributions to or expenditures on the campaigns of candidates or ballot issues. As part of this policy, each such elected and appointed official in Montana is charged to promote actions that accomplish a level playing field in election spending.(2) When carrying out the policy under subsection (1), Montana’s elected and appointed officials are generally directed as follows:(a) that the people of Montana regard money as property, not speech;(b) that the people of Montana regard the rights under the United States Constitution as rights of human beings, not rights of corporations;(c) that the people of Montana regard the immense aggregation of wealth that is accumulated by corporations using advantages provided by the government to be corrosive and distorting when used to advance the political interests of corporations;(d) that the people of Montana intend that there should be a level playing field in campaign spending that allows all individuals, regardless of wealth, to express their views to one another and their government; and(e) that the people of Montana intend that a level playing field in campaign spending includes limits on overall campaign expenditures and limits on large contributions to or expenditures for the benefit of any campaign by any source, including corporations, individuals, or political committees.
Chief Sitting Bull
Sitting Bull was born near the Grand River in South Dakota. There is some debate whether Sitting Bull was an actual chief of the Hunkpapa Sioux, but no one would argue that he was a leader among men.
He was a medicine man whose visions were quite accurate. In one scenario, his vision showed soldiers falling out of the sky with indians below. Not long after, Custer was defeated.
NEW SECTION. Section 4. Promotion of policy by elected or appointed officials.
(1) Montana’s congressional delegation is charged with proposing a joint resolution offering an amendment to the United States constitution that accomplishes the following:(a) overturns the U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission;
(b) establishes that corporations are not human beings with constitutional rights;(c) establishes that campaign contributions or expenditures by corporations, whether to candidates or ballot issues, may be prohibited by a political body at any level of government; and(d) accomplishes the goals of Montanans in achieving a level playing field in election spending.(2) Montana’s congressional delegation is charged to work diligently to bring such a joint resolution to a vote and passage, including use of discharge petitions, cloture, and every other procedural method to secure a vote and passage.(3) The members of the Montana legislature, if given the opportunity, are charged with ratifying any amendment to the United States constitution that is consistent with the policy of the state of Montana.
NEW SECTION. Section 5. Saving clause.
[This act] does not affect rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, or proceedings that were begun before [the effective date of this act.]
Chief Red Cloud’s Grave
He was called Makhpiya-luta which means Scarlet Cloud. He was probably named for the red meteor that streaked across the sky on the day he was born.
Red Cloud was strongly opposed to the white expansion in the west and virtually shut down the Bozeman Trail. During a peace conference at Fort Laramie in 1866 Red Cloud stormed out of the meeting realizing the military was just going to expand it’s reach by building additional forts. These events lead to the Fetterman Massacre and the Wagon Box Fight in northern Wyoming. For a period of a year and a half no wagons moved along the trail to the goldfields of Montana.
In 1868 the Government promised to abandon the forts if Red Cloud would live on the reservation in peace. However, Red Cloud stayed away until the soldiers left and the forts were actually abandon. This was the only time where Indian military power affect any permanent change on the frontier.
NEW SECTION. Section 6. Severability.
If a part of [this act] is invalid, all valid parts that are severable from the invalid part remain in effect. If a part of [this act] is invalid in one or more of its applications, the part remains in effect in all valid applications that are severable from the invalid applications.
NEW SECTION. Section 7. Effective date.
[This act] is effective upon approval by the electorate.
NEW SECTION.Section 8. Codification instruction.
Sections [1 through 4] are intended to be codified as an integral part of Title 13 and the provisions of Title 13 apply to sections [1 through 4].Stand With Montanans
Chief Red Cloud
“I am poor and naked, but I am the chief of the nation. We do not want riches but we do want to train our children right. Riches would do us no good. We could not take them with us to the other world. We do not want riches. We want peace and love.”– Chief Red Cloud
Then God said, “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. God blessed them; and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it; and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over every living thing that moves on the earth.” Then God said, “Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is on the surface of all the earth, and every treewhich has fruit yielding seed; it shall be food for you; and to every beast of the earth and to every bird of thesky and to every thing that moves on the earth which has life, I have given every green plant for food”; and it was so. God saw all that He had made, and behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.
The Heart open to God, purified by contemplation of God, is stronger than guns and weapons of every kind. The fiat of Mary, the word of her heart, has changed the history of the world, because it brought the Saviour into the world—because, thanks to her Yes, God could become man in our world and remains so for all time. The Evil One has power in this world, as we see and experience continually; he has power because our freedom continually lets itself be led away from God. But since God himself took a human heart and has thus steered human freedom towards what is good, the freedom to choose evil no longer has the last word. From that time forth, the word that prevails is this: “In the world you will have tribulation, but take heart; I have overcome the world” (Jn 16:33). The message of Fatima invites us to trust in this promise.
Prefect of the Congregation
for the Doctrine of the Faith
WOUNDED KNEE GHOST DANCE
“I did not know then how much was ended. When I look back now from this high hill of my old age, I can still see the butchered women and children lying heaped and scattered all along the crooked gulch as plain as when I saw them with eyes young. And I can see that something else died there in the bloody mud, and was buried in the blizzard. A people’s dream died there. It was a beautiful dream . . . . the nation’s hoop is broken and scattered. There is no center any longer, and the sacred tree is dead.”
- Black Elk Speaks, 1932.
British Monarchy Controlled Canadian Indian Holocaust: Remove The Blight ~ Rename British Columbia To Okanagan!
On December 29, 1890, the 7th Cavalry Regiment of U.S. troops went to the camp at Wounded Knee Creek to disarm and relocate the Lakota Sioux, but when a deaf tribesman by the name of Black Coyote refused to give up his gun he was overpowered by the soldiers and a shot was accidently fired. The result of this altercation caused the U.S. soldiers to fire indiscriminately into the crowd killing over 150 Sioux men, woman, children and even their own troops. After the massacre the military then hired civilians to bury the dead and later mortally wounded in a large mass grave on a hill overlooking where the gunfire first broke out. The Wounded Knee Massacre is still to this day known as one of the darkest days in American History.
Wounded Knee: Ghost Dance and Sitting BullThroughout 1890, the U.S. government worried about the increasing influence at Pine Ridge of the Ghost Dance spiritual movement, which taught that Indians had been defeated and confined to reservations because they had angered the gods by abandoning their traditional customs. Many Sioux believed that if they practiced the Ghost Dance and rejected the ways of the white man, the gods would create the world anew and destroy all non-believers, including non-Indians. On December 15, 1890, reservation police tried to arrest Sitting Bull
, the famous Sioux chief, who they mistakenly believed was a Ghost Dancer, and killed him in the process, increasing the tensions at Pine Ridge.Wounded Knee: Conflict breaks outOn December 29, the U.S. Army’s 7th Cavalry surrounded a band of Ghost Dancers under Big Foot, a Lakota Sioux chief, near Wounded Knee Creek and demanded they surrender their weapons. As that was happening, a fight broke out between an Indian and a U.S. soldier and a shot was fired, although it’s unclear from which side. A brutal massacre followed, in which it’s estimated 150 Indians were killed (some historians put this number at twice as high), nearly half of them women and children. The cavalry lost 25 men.The conflict at Wounded Knee was originally referred to as a battle, but in reality it was a tragic and avoidable massacre. Surrounded by heavily armed troops, it’s unlikely that Big Foot’s band would have intentionally started a fight. Some historians speculate that the soldiers of the 7th Cavalry were deliberately taking revenge for the regiment’s defeat at Little Bighorn in 1876. Whatever the motives, the massacre ended the Ghost Dance movement and was the last major confrontation in America’s deadly war against the Plains Indians.Wounded Knee: American Indian activists organizeThe American Indian Movement (AIM) was founded in 1968 in an effort to stop police harassment of Indians in the Minneapolis area. Borrowing some tactics from the anti-war student demonstrators of the era, AIM soon gained national notoriety for its flamboyant protests. However, many mainstream Indian leaders denounced the youth-dominated group as too radical.In 1972, a faction of AIM members led by Dennis Banks and Leonard Peltier sought to close the divide by making alliances with traditional tribal elders on reservations. They had their greatest success on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota
, after a group of young whites murdered a Sioux named Yellow Thunder. Although Yellow Thunder’s attackers only received six-year prison sentences, this was widely seen as a victory by the local Sioux accustomed to unfair treatment by the often racist Anglo judicial system. AIM’s highly visible publicity campaign on the case was given considerable credit for the verdict, winning the organization a great deal of respect on the reservation.Wounded Knee: Siege beginsAIM’s growing prestige and influence, however, threatened the conservative Sioux tribal chairman, Dick Wilson. When Wilson learned of a planned AIM protest against his administration at Pine Ridge, he retreated to tribal headquarters where he was under the protection of federal marshals and Bureau of Indian Affairs police. Rather than confront the police in Pine Ridge, some 200 AIM members and their supporters decided to occupy the symbolically significant hamlet of Wounded Knee, site of the 1890 massacre. Wilson, with the backing of the federal government, responded by besieging Wounded Knee.During the 71 days of the siege, which began on February 27, 1973, federal officers and AIM members exchanged gunfire almost nightly. Hundreds of arrests were made, and two Native Americans
were killed and a federal marshal was permanently paralyzed by a bullet wound. The leaders of AIM finally surrendered on May 8 after a negotiated settlement was reached. In a subsequent trial, the judge ordered their acquittal because of evidence that the FBI had manipulated key witnesses. AIM emerged victorious and succeeded in shining a national spotlight on the problems of modern Native Americans.Wounded Knee: Trouble continues at Pine RidgeThe troubles at Wounded Knee were not over after the siege. A virtual civil war
broke out between the opposing Indian factions on the Pine Ridge reservation, and a series of beatings, shootings and murders left more than 100 Indians dead. When two FBI agents were killed in a 1975 gunfight, the agency raided the reservation and arrested AIM leader Leonard Peltier for the crime. The FBI crackdown coupled with AIM’s own excesses ended its influence at Pine Ridge. In 1977, Peltier was convicted of killing the two FBI agents and sentenced to life in prison. To this day, Peltier’s supporters continue to maintain his innocence and seek a presidential pardon for him.
“Suppose a white man comes to me and says: ‘Joseph, I like your horses and I want to buy them.’ I say to him: ‘No; my horses suit me; I will not sell them.’ Then he goes to my neighbor, and says to him: ‘Joseph has some good horses. I want them, but he refuses to sell.’ My neighbor answers: ‘Pay me the money and I will sell you Joseph’s horses.’ The white man returns to me and says: ‘Joseph, I have bought your horses and you must let me have them.’ That is the way our lands were bought.”
– Chief Joseph
When Old Joseph died, Young Chief Joseph held his hand and listened to his words:
My son, my body is returning to my mother earth, and my spirit is going very soon to see the Great Spirit Chief. When I am gone, think of your country. You are the chief of these people. They look to you to guide them. Always remember that your father never sold his country. You must stop your ears whenever you are asked to sign a treaty selling your home. A few years more, and white men will be all around you. They have their eyes on this land. My son, never forget my dying words. This country holds your father’s body. Never sell the bones of your father and your mother.
Young Chief Joseph promised.
“A man who would not love his father’s grave is worse than a wild animal,” he said.
After that he was careful never to accept any presents from the United States.